Developing a New Zealand PHODA – Photographs of Daily Activities
One of the goals I set myself for this new year was to complete developing a New Zealand version of the PHODA.  The PHODA was originally developed by Kugler, et al., (1999) and consists of 100 photographs depicting people carrying out various daily activities.  There are two versions of the lower back PHODA, the second is an abbreviated electronic version developed by Leeuw, et al., (2007), that has undergone preliminary validation assessing its psychometric properties.  A third version, this time an upper body one, was developed by Turk, et al., (2008), which measures fear related to neck position and loading and was found to be satisfactory in terms of psychometric properties.

The main problem with the lower back PHODA, both the shortened version and the original, is the context-specific nature of the photographs.  For New Zealand patients, the pictures are identifiably non-New Zealand, and while I can’t be sure that this affects the measurements obtained, patients comment frequently that the photographs look different from their experience.  The one developed by Turk doesn’t even pretend to provide contextual cues and is simply a set of photographs with people against a plain background. (more…)

Context and sociocultural factors

I posted yesterday about how little social and cultural factors seem to be included in assessing and managing pain, and I had hoped to find some papers to discuss today. Events conspired and I have failed in that endeavour, so this post is, unusually for me, almost entirely my opinion.

So, sticking my neck out, why do I think the sociocultural context needs to be included when someone presents with their pain problem?

Well, the first thing that springs to mind is how has that person has found their way to a treatment facility – how did they get referred and by whom? To present for treatment means that at some point, this person has decided the pain they are experiencing is undesirable, and something needs to be done about it (whether that ‘something’ is diagnosis, elimination or confirmation of its impact). This decision to seek help seems to be based largely on whether it’s ‘normal’ or ‘expected’ in the culture in which the person lives.

Let me give you an example: and yes, it’s perhaps a little outrageous, and yes, it does relate to acute pain!
In one group in New Zealand society, body piercing and suspension is one way to generate a ‘natural high’. The individual and his or her supporters (usually members of the same social group) congregate and encourage each other through the process of suspending the body from large hooks inserted through the skin of the back. As the process continues, some of the participants begin to swing their bodies from the hooks, and I’ve watched one participant swing and run across a stage to gain more momentum. Although the physical trauma is clear and pain is experienced as the hooks are initially inserted, over the 10 – 20 minutes of the process, these individuals start to feel euphoric and describe the feeling as ‘bringing me closer to a spiritual plane’, ‘overcoming my physical self’, ‘getting in touch with the inner self’.

The practice of body piercing is ancient, and an accepted part of many cultures including Sri Lanka where it forms a part of a ritual to the Hindu god Murugan, and the Phillipines where ritual re-enactments of the crucifixion, complete with nails piercing the hands are performed on Good Friday. Tattooing is also an accepted part of many cultures including New Zealand Maori and the Pacific Islands.

For many of us, the thought of submitting to painful procedures as a recreational activity is just not something we would ever do. However, we may participate in weekend sports – netball, rugby, skiing, running, weight-training…and sustain pain with the ‘support’ of our friends!

So it’s not surprising that if our willingness to experience acute pain can be influenced by social and cultural factors, treatment seeking for persistent pain can also be influenced.

Two common pain problems come to mind: the headache and the backache. Headaches are usually managed with simple analgesia and a quiet night or a walk. Backaches – well for many of us (around half of those that have an episode of back pain in a year (Walker, Muller & Grant, 2004) we will seek health care from a GP or chiropracter or similar. If we don’t initially attend, our families and friends or employers will suggest we do if our function is affected. Who we see will be influenced by our culture – in New Zealand, it’ll be a GP or physiotherapist or chiropracter; in rural China, it will more likely be a practitioner of traditional chinese medicine, or an acupuncturist.

The impact of even our acute pain on our lives will depend on our social context – our work, whether we live alone, the responsibilities for household tasks or caring for family members. And most especially, our pain behaviours will be influenced by others around us – our nearest and dearest strongly shape the kinds of things we do when we are sore (e.g. Smith, Keefe, Caldwell, Romano & Baucom, 2004).

And these are the things that we may well miss assessing if we don’t meet the person’s family (how many people attend a pain assessment alone, without any family present?), or talk to their colleagues. What’s more, we don’t typically include these people in management either – despite our knowledge that people changing behaviour really need to have the support of those who see them every day, especially in the period immediately after a pain management programme. In New Zealand anyway, ACC claimants receiving compensation for an accident rarely have encouragement or funding to enable their family members to also be included in intervention – even when roles have changed significantly, or the relationship is under strain. The ‘claimant’ is the person with the problem – even when we know that people live within a family, community, social, sporting, church system.

Tomorrow I hope to post on some of the factors to assess when considering the sociocultural and contextual factors in a person’s pain experience. If you’ve enjoyed this post, and want to read more – don’t forget you can subscribe using the RSS feed button at the top of the page, or you can simply bookmark the blog. And I love comments and respond – even if you don’t like what I have to say!

Smith, S. J. A., Keefe, F. J., Caldwell, D. S., Romano, J., & Baucom, D. (2004). Gender differences in patient-spouse interactions: A sequential analysis of behavioral interactions in patients having osteoarthritic knee pain. Pain, 112(1-2), 183-187.

Walker, B. F., Muller, R., & Grant, W. D. (2004). Low back pain in Australian adults. health provider utilization and care seeking. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 27(5), 327-335.

It’s not rocket science – it’s respecting the individual

Using cognitive behavioral therapies in pain management isn’t really rocket science, it’s simply being aware of the principles of learning from both a cognitive (thinking) point of view and a behavioural point of view. It is, however, complex – by that I mean, there are many threads to systematically follow and actively manage.

There does need to be a fairly large emphasis on assessing or understanding (or formulating, if you prefer psychological language) the factors that are working together to influence the person’s presentation. A formulation is simply a set of premises or hypotheses that, if they are tested and found to hold true, help to explain why this person is presenting the way they are, and to predict how they might respond in certain situations.

In chronic pain management, this means incorporating biophysical or biomedical elements, along with psychological and social elements. The complex blending of all these factors is what gives each individual a unique presentation and a unique set of concerns. And this is why it’s important never to think there is a ‘standard’ or routine way to help people with chronic pain develop ways to cope and move forward. ‘Cookie cutter’ or ‘recipe’ methods simply won’t work as effectively as an individualised approach.

My main concern currently is that the biomedical/biophysical and psychological aspects of assessment are fairly well covered in many settings – the aspect that is least well assessed and addressed is the social. ‘Social’ covers an area of influence that begins with interactions between the individual and his or her family, through to the influence of mass media and systems of governance and policy within a society. I think in New Zealand anyway, the psychological assessments are becoming over-emphasised, and the lack of emphasis on roles, function, interactions

Today let’s look at the words of people experiencing chronic pain – a great reading is Mandy Corbett, Nadine E. Foster, Bie Nio Ong’s paper ‘Living with low back pain—Stories of hope and despair’.

It incorporates the narratives of six people experiencing chronic pain, and themes that emerge include the fluctuating emotions of hope and despair. A number of linked themes emerged which influenced the extent to which people oscillate between hope and despair, the most salient of which were ‘uncertainty’, ‘impact on self’, ‘social context of living with pain’, and ‘worry and fear of the future’. It is clear from the narrative accounts that it is not only just physical pain that the back pain sufferer must endure, but also that the psychosocial implications pose an added and often complicated challenge.

‘They [others with back pain] go through what
I’ve been through. They’ve got to come through
it all: the stress, the anger, er…the feeling of uselessness, and it can take a toll on a
marriage and a family so bad, to the point that,
that person may not have a family in 18 months,
four years’

‘You know, I can’t have one
day a week off. I’ve got to do full-time and I’m
finding it very hard and I’m frightened that I’m
going to do it because I have to, but then I end up
getting worse and I just can’t cope. What do I
do? Because that worries me. I can’t go off sick. I
can’t afford to go on half pay. So .. so that’s a
real dilemma.’

‘He positions himself as a social persona
who contributes both to his family and to the
community, and re-affirming himself in this way
forms the foundation for a generalised hope where
he can have faith in the future’

Can we spend a while listening to the social context of the people we work with? Considering both the impact and the influence of the wider social factors that abound when an individual experiences their personal pain.

More tomorrow on the social context of pain.

Corbett, M., et al. Living with low back pain—Stories of hope and despair. Social Science & Medicine (2007), doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.06.008