What would it be like to lift the hood and take a good hard look at the skills needed to carry out various chronic pain management treatments? You know, take each profession’s jargon away and really look at what a clinician needs to know to conduct safe, effective treatment. Oh I know, this is skating on thin ice – each profession’s treatment paradigm and assumptions are incredibly important and I’m an outsider looking in, so please, before you push me under the cold, cold water, let’s think about the parts that really do the business in pain management.
The first set of skills that are crucial to effective pain management are those to do with communicating. The ability to listen carefully, reflect what’s being said, and to ask questions to genuinely understand what a person believes and feels, and how they got there. To be able to help the person identify what’s important to them, their main concerns, their values and the direction they want to move towards. To know what to say and how to say it (Bensing & Verhuel, 2010; Hall, 2011; Hulsman, 2009; Klaber & Richardson, 1997; Oien, Steihaug, Iversen & Raheim, 2011).
These skills are generic to all health professionals, although perhaps enhanced and refined in those clinicians who are involved in talking as the therapeutic process.
The second set of skills involve being able to change behaviour. To be aware of operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and to use these principles along with those involving cognitions (eg “education” or providing information). Interestingly, while these principles are derived from psychology, and perhaps educational research, ALL health professionals use these skills when they’re involved in asking the person to make a change outside of the treatment room.
Unless the clinician is doing something TO the patient, treatments for chronic pain typically involve asking the patient to DO something (Honicke, 2011; Persson, Rivano-Rischer & Eklun, 2004; Robinson, Kennedy & Harmon, 2011).
The third involve being able to progressively grade activities from simple to complex – modifying them so that the demands just slightly exceed the person’s capabilities or confidence.
- Those demands might be physical (repetitions, range of movement, loading, isolation to integrated movement),
- Cognitive (simple one-step directions through to complex multi-stage decision-making activities),
- Social (working alone, in a pair, in a small group, large group, being the follower, being the leader),
- Emotional (joyful flow or frustrating, touching on highly important values or those that are not especially relevant).
- Contextual (controlled contexts like a clinic room vs highly chaotic like a shopping mall on Christmas Eve)
It’s this latter set that I think we may forget when looking at skills and professionals. There can be an assumption that being able to do an exercise programme in a gym or clinic should lead to greater participation in life outside that setting. Exercises can be prescribed to isolate a small set of muscles, using all the usual suspects to increase strength, flexibility, speed and stamina – and the techniques to progress along this kind of training are, sorry guys, reasonably simple to learn. The challenge is for the person doing them to be able to transfer this training to the real world where movements are integrated, where the environment is complex and the demands and distractions are myriad.
Likewise with graded exposure training – beginning with the least feared movements, progressing to more and more feared situations using a graded hierarchy is something any one of us can learn provided we take the time to understand how and why this approach is used. What’s far more difficult is helping the person doing these activities in new and evolving situations so the skills generalise. Occupational therapists, for what it’s worth, are explicitly and uniquely trained to analyse occupations/activities to do precisely this kind of generalisation.
When we look at what works in chronic pain management, there are four things:
- Placebo or meaning effects which are strongly influenced by the way we communicate, and the person’s expectations from us and our interaction.
- Providing accurate information so the pain is “de-threatened” or at least loses a large degree of the threat value even if the pain doesn’t reduce as a result.
- Supporting the person to do more, whether that be through exercise or just doing more of what they want.
- Generalising those skills so that irrespective of the pain fluctuations or context, the person can remain able to participate in what’s important in their life.
And the skills needed to do these things? They’re the ones I’ve listed above.
What I think this means is the time has come to stop describing various treatments as “belonging” to any single discipline. They don’t “belong” to anyone – they’re generic skills that we ALL use. So I, as an occupational therapist warped by psychologists, will have greater technique in communicating, noticing psychosocial obstacles, and helping a person generalise skills into a range of contexts by virtue of my training. Paul, as a physiotherapist, will have greater technique in prescribing specific exercises for certain muscles, and have more confidence in exercise progression. Scott will have greater expertise in enhancing expectations and helping a person reconceptualise their pain in a way that dethreatens it. We ALL have effective skills across all of these areas, but at the same time we have particular expertise in what we originally trained in.
Finally, what I think this means is that when the call is made for clinicians to work in primary care, or alongside GPs or in ED, to help reduce healthcare use, increase participation in life and so on, it’s time we stopped saying “The (X profession) and the GP should form a team”, I think it’s time for us to say “The allied health team (made up of people with the following skills) should form a team with the person living with pain”.
Bensing, J. M., & Verheul, W. (2010). The silent healer: The role of communication in placebo effects. Patient Education and Counseling, 80(3), 293-299. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2010.05.033
Eakin, E., Reeves, M., Winkler, E., Lawler, S., & Owen, N. (2010). Maintenance of physical activity and dietary change following a telephone-delivered intervention. Health Psychology, 29(6), 566-573.
Hall, J. A. (2011). Clinicians’ accuracy in perceiving patients: Its relevance for clinical practice and a narrative review of methods and correlates. Patient Education & Counseling, 84(3), 319-324.
Hardcastle, S., Blake, N., & Hagger, M. S. (2012). The effectiveness of a motivational interviewing primary-care based intervention on physical activity and predictors of change in a disadvantaged community. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35(3), 318-333.
Honicke, M. (2011). Acceptance and commitment therapy as a challenging approach for occupational therapists in pain management. Ergotherapie und Rehabilitation, 50(7), 28-30
Hulsman, R. L. (2009). Shifting goals in medical communication. Determinants of goal detection and response formation. Patient Education & Counseling, 74(3), 302-308.
Klaber, M. J., & Richardson, P. (1997). The influence of the physiotherapist-patient relationship on pain and disability. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 13(1), 89-96.
Okun, M. A., & Karoly, P. (2007). Perceived goal ownership, regulatory goal cognition, and health behavior change. American Journal of Health Behavior Vol 31(1) Jan-Feb 2007, 98-109.
Oien, A. M., Steihaug, S., Iversen, S., & Raheim, M. (2011). Communication as negotiation processes in long-term physiotherapy: A qualitative study. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 25(1), 53-6
Persson, E., Rivano-Fischer, M., & Eklun, M. (2004). Evaluation of changes in occupational performance among patients in a pain management program. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 36(2), 85-91.
Robinson, K., Kennedy, N., & Harmon, D. (2011). Review of occupational therapy for people with chronic pain. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 58(2), 74-81.
Rosser, B. A., McCullagh, P., Davies, R., Mountain, G. A., McCracken, L., & Eccleston, C. (2011). Technology-mediated therapy for chronic pain management: The challenges of adapting behavior change interventions for delivery with pervasive communication technology. Telemedicine Journal & E-Health, 17(3), 211-216.